The female reproductive system has a couple of functions

The female reproductive system has a couple of functions

The system produces the ova which is the female egg required in reproduction. Once the egg has been produced, it is transported to the Fallopian tubes for fertilization by the sperm in a process called conception.

After conception, implantation occurs. This is the when the egg which is fertilized is implanted into the uterus walls. This is the initial stage of pregnancy. The female reproductive system is designed such that should implantation fail to occur, menstruation
occurs. Menstruation is the process through which the uterine lining is shed. A process that occurs monthly.

The second function of the female reproductive system is the production of the sex hormones for the female. It is these hormones that help maintain and balance the reproduction cycle.

Composition of the female anatomy

The composition of the female reproduction system is divided into two parts. There are parts outside and inside the body.

External female reproductive system

The main function of the external parts (genitals) is to allow sperms to enter the female body and also offer protection to the internal organs from disease-causing organisms.

Labia Majora: Used to surround all other reproductive organs.
Key characteristics of labia majora are that they are fleshy and quite noticeable in size. They also have glands for sweating and secreting oil. Once a girl reaches puberty, the labia majora grow hair on them.

Labia minora

  • They form the entrance to the vagina and urethra. They are small and are covered by the labia majora.

Bartholin’s glands

  • In terms of location, they are next to the vaginal opening. The key function is producing secretions which are rich in mucus.


  • The pair of labia minora converge at the clitoris. The clitoris is a protrusion which is sensitive and has same characteristics as the penis.
  • Internal Female Reproductive System


  • Also called the birth canal. This is a canal that connects the cervix to the external organs.

Womb (uterus)

  • This is where the fetus develops from. It is shaped like a pea and is hollow. Made up of the cervix and the corpus. The corpus is characterized by its ability to expand hence hold a baby that is developing. The cervix allows makes it possible for the menstrual blood to be expelled from the body and sperms to get into the female body.


  • Their main function is to produce hormones and
    eggs. They are oval-shaped and are on both sides of the uterus.

Fallopian tubes

  • They are tube-like in nature and located just above the uterus. The main function is providing an avenue for the ova to reach the uterus from the ovaries. It is in the fallopian tubes that conception takes place. After conception, the egg, which is fertilized, implants on the uterine wall.

3Menstrual cycle

For menstruation to occur, the following hormones have to be produced. Progesterone, estrogen, luteinizing and stimulating hormones. The menstrual cycle takes 28 days on average and occurs in three distinct phases. Follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

Finally, eggs in the ovaries die slowly until they are finished when menopause is reached.